Wednesday, 12 March 2014

Generate Your Own Power- 4th Generation Solar Cell

In Future you can generate Electric Power any where any time.
 Fourth generation Solar cells based on ‘inorganics-in-organics’, offers improved power conversion efficiency to current 3G Solar Cells, while maintaining their low cost base. The 4G solar cells defined as the low cost and flexibility of conducting polymer films (organic) with the lifetime stability of novel nanostructures (inorganic) (see figure).Incorporation of active inorganic nanomaterials improves the harvesting of solar energy and the manipulation of electrical charges within these 4G solar cells, enhancing efficiency and lifetime stability. 

First Generation Solar cells based on crystalline silicon and 2G polycrystalline silicon dominate the current market, with close to 90% of the entire generating capacity of solar electricity, which has now topped 100GW.

Saturday, 20 April 2013


We know about the fact that the things which goes up in outer space never comes down. But now, the fact is whatever goes in outer space may come down.
Did you know that the world outside our Planet is also getting polluted???

Yes, it is so.the junk present in space is considered as SPACE JUNK or SPACE DEBRIS.Spent rockets ,old satellites, fragments from erosion, and collisions contributes to space junk. The waste also consists of lost devices or equipments of astronauts. Since in the last 50 years many satellites have been launched, but only 1000 of them functional at present and when the junk present collides with functional satellites, the parts of satellites break into fragments thereby increasing the quantity of junk present. It happens as the speed of the junk is estimated as 11km/hr. we can't imagine world without satellite because We are dependent on the satellite communication (banking, mobile communication, Internet and treatment) and space junk is a biggest threat for it.

Major Collisions:

  • In 1969, five sailors on a Japanese ship were injured by space debris, of Russian origin.

  • The first major collision was on 10 February 2009.The deactivated 950 kg Kosmos 2251 and an operational 560 kg IRIDIUM 33 collided over northern Siberia resulting into huge risk to spacecraft.

  • On 22 January 2013, a Russian laser-ranging satellite was hit by a piece of debris suspected to be from the Chinese ASAT test of 2007 in this case both the orbit and the spin rate where changed.

Techniques to avoid collision:

The techniques suggested to avoid harm are that space stations should be asked to DEACTIVATE the non-functional satellites before launching the other one. LASER BROOM, the another method which produces a rocket-like thrust,slows the object. Although most debris will burn up in the atmosphere, larger objects can reach the ground intact and present a risk.

Saturday, 13 April 2013

Sixth sense

Futuristic Invention
We have five sense to perceive information about the things around us; this allows us to take action and decision according to situation.
To sense information like digital data world is not natural here sixth sense technology  plays an important role to bridge the gap, bringing intangible digital information out into the tangible world and allows us to sense it with natural hand gestures.
Pranab mistry invented Sixth sense prototype which is wearable device and made by use of projector, a mirror and camera to sense the gesture of hand.

Thursday, 4 April 2013

Scientists Create World's Lightest Material; Lighter Than Air

Chinese scientists have developed the world's lightest substance - carbon aerogel - with a density only one sixth of that of the air. Scientists at Zhejiang University produced the solid material which has a density of only 0.16 mg/cubic centimetre, breaking the previous record of the world's lightest material held by graphite aerogel.
The graphite aerogel was developed by German scientists last year with a density of 0.18 mg/cubic centimetre. Aerogel is a material produced with semi-solid gel dried and solvent removed. It appears in a solid state with many internal pores filled with air, and thus it's of minimal density.
The research team led by Professor Gao Chao freeze-dried solutions of carbon nanotubes and graphene to remove moisture and retain integrity.
"Carbon aerogel is similar to carbon sponge in structure. When an aerogel of the size of a mug is put on Setaria, the slender grass will not bend," Gao Chao said in a statement.
Despite its fragile appearance, carbon aerogel is excellent in elasticity. It can bounce back when compressed. In addition, it's one of the materials with biggest oil absorption capacity. Current oil absorbing products can usually absorb organic solvent of about 10 times of their own weight. The carbon aerogel newly developed can absorb up to 900 times their own weight.
"Carbon aerogel is expected to play an important role in pollution control such as oil spill control, water purification and even air purification," Gao Chao said.
In addition to pollution control, carbon aerogel is expected to become an ideal material for energy storage insulation, catalytic carrier and sound-absorption.
The study was published in the journal Advanced Materials.
Courtesy: CNN IBN

Tuesday, 26 March 2013

Correction Fluids

A correction fluid is an opaque, white fluid applied to paper to mask errors in text. Once dried, it can be written over. Earlier It is typically packaged in small bottles, and the lid has an attached brush (or a triangular piece of foam) which dips into the bottle, but now both are mixed together and filled in pen that’s why we now a days, call it as correction pen. The pen is spring-loaded and, when dabbed onto the paper, releases a small amount of fluid. If the pen does dry out, a few vigorous shakes usually get the fluid to flow again. Compared to the bottled form, the pen allows a more even and thin application, and is less prone to drying out (since only a tiny surface is exposed during application) or clogging.


Before the invention of word processors, correction fluid greatly facilitated the production of typewritten documents. One of the first forms of correction fluid was invented in 1951 by the secretary Bette Nesmith Graham, founder of Liquid Paper.

Chemical composition:

It contains volatile organic compounds; like thinner, which originally contained toluene, which was banned due to its toxicity. Later, it contained 1,1,1-trichloroethane, a skin irritant now widely banned under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer, and then the slightly safer trichloroethylene. Thinners currently used with correction fluid include bromopropane.

To avoid the inconveniences of organic solvents (safety and availability), some brands of fluid are water-based. However, those have the disadvantages of a longer drying time, and incompatibility with some inks (which will soak through them).

Harmful Effect:

In India the Pune police are struggling to cope with increasing cases of addiction to 'whitener'. Since it is not covered as a substance under the Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS) Act, the police are finding it difficult to tackle this menace. So the after all incidents, Government of India banned the correction fluids with the liquid separately.

Monday, 25 March 2013